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Frontiers | New Trends in Politicalization of International Translation Theory

Date: 2018-03-28
Views: 12

Translation studies are changing in the international academic world and theories emerge in an endless stream. This article introduces the latest ideas and trends of international colleagues to the domestic translation academic community.


The original newspaper: "International translation theory presents a new trend of politicization"


Author: UNSW Professor Chung Yong, an associate professor of Xi'an Jiaotong University Li Ying


Translation studies in the international academic community belong to a discipline that is constantly improving and rapidly changing. It is also a large-scale, multidisciplinary academic discipline in China. However, it is regrettable that there is still a gap between translation studies at home and abroad, and the communication is not smooth, and even they do not know each other. To this end, based on one of the author's recent lectures at the Xi'an Jiaotong University, Sichuan University, Hubei University, and Yangtze University, the core content of the lecture of the same name (one of the lectures live video: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_9ef7c7d20102xsvz.html) We wrote this article to introduce the latest ideas and developments of international colleagues to the domestic translation academic community. Considering that the British translation theorist Mona Baker is influential and closely related to the domestic academic community, we will focus on the schools she represents and her basic doctrines. I hope to help the academic community deepen her understanding of the school of translation studies. understanding.


The post-functional era of translation theory


According to Nida in the 1980s, translation theory can be divided into four schools, ie, philology, language school, communicative school, and social symbol school. The author believes that these four schools can basically be regarded as four diachronic signs. With the modern society entering the 2.0 network era, the digital era, and the multimedia era, the original literary equivalence, language equivalence, and subsequent functional equivalence pursued by the modern society have already peaked and declining. Even the traditional text-based translation is about to enter the dead with the emergence of artificial intelligence translation. New theories that contend with the classic theory and become stronger are emerging. Due to the space relationship, the author focuses on one of the main branches.


Rice's functional theory, introduced in the middle and later stages of the last century, emphasizes the translation operations based on the stylistic and functional analysis of three or four major texts. In the post-functional era, the boundaries between functions have completely collapsed, and translation has become a single, independent project, each of which can have unique modes of operation, translation theories, and practical paths. Zhong Yong calls the program translation method or program evaluation method. In the context of the deregulation of the standard, the collapse of boundaries, and the diversification of functions, Beck’s social interventionist translation theory is self-contained. Although controversy and criticism have ebbed, he still has access to academic circles, including its critics and critics. The universal respect. She was elected "International Linguist of the Year" in 2016 and can be regarded as a recognition of her academic contributions by colleagues.


Since about 2000, although her early works "in other words" based on the theory of dynamic equivalence continue to be treated as textbooks or reference books for some courses, Becker's translation thinking has been far away from linguistics, texts, skills, conversions, accuracy, etc. The topics that translation theories often focus on are more concerned with sensitive topics such as clashes of civilizations, hegemony, confrontation, fairness in marginal communities, and social intervention. Before and after 2002, when the U.S. military launched military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and actively carried out counter-terrorism military operations in the Arab world, this environment can not be ignored. She first introduced translation plus conflict, translation plus narrative, and activism plus translation. Translators can and must actively participate in social conflicts and political movements. In 2016, she also received a record research grant from the National Academic Council of the United Kingdom to carry out a project called translation and genealogy of knowledge.


The Socialization and Politicization of International Translation Studies


The above-mentioned several new ideas for translation were not recognized by the people at the beginning of their release, or they were criticized for excessive politicization, or they could not be said to have any relationship with her professional translation practice. Among them, if you want to discuss the greatest differences with the traditional and classical translation theories, it is an activist plus translation. Accurate and faithful is the cornerstone of translation. Therefore, translation is often referred to as a shadow, a tool, or a so-called screw in a clock. But what Baker advocates is precisely that translators are to dominate themselves and their profession and work, and use this control to carry out and promote self-righteous social or political activities.


It is undeniable that her statement was later widely accepted, or at least accepted selectively and reservedly. The recipients even include the original skeptics and critics. The China’s current good story project, which is being promoted, advocates that translators tell Chinese stories well. They must tell stories that foreigners are willing to listen to and listen to and understand. In this context, some excellent works began to appear. The new ideas and new practices of these foreign propaganda translations have looming over Baker's ideological sparks about translation plus narrative.


In the study of international translation theory, the increasingly politicized is far from Beck. For example, Van Nudi also advocates choosing between different translation styles (such as alienation or assimilation) and applying it to fight Western hegemony or mainstream culture. Spivag is also concerned about how to translate to Africa or the so-called "people". The author is no exception. By rereading Yan Fu’s translation case and studying the social practices of the new generation of translators represented by Yuan Tianpeng, he explores how to use translation for institutional design and promote social progress. In the area of translation and knowledge pedigree studies recently conducted by Baker, the author (Zhong Yong) also involved and published an empirical case study called Translate Live to Generate New Knowledge.

Frontiers | New Trends in Politicalization of International Translation Theory

On the surface, Baker's current translation and knowledge pedigree, which he cares about, seems to be a bit more moderate, and less impactful words such as conflict, resistance, and subversion. In actual fact, under careful consideration, Baker's current pursuit is a bit of a shadow of European structuralism and critical theorists. Language is not what people say, but what people say—Yakan’s statement makes the world recognize the definitive planning and limitations of language. Foucault's study of archaeology of knowledge, proposing claims of political power in similar knowledge, has enabled the world to profoundly understand the role and influence of knowledge in the shaping of humanity and humanism. Baker inherited the same strain. She studied the translation plus the knowledge of genealogy, focusing on the variation, increment, and appreciation of knowledge in the translation process of knowledge. If she had been keen to resist and subvert power or hegemony through individual translation behavior, she is now discussing how to influence the audience's knowledge structure through translation and indirectly promote social change. In this sense, she is still pursuing activism and is still pursuing an intervention in society and promoting its development. However, she is now seeking a path to reshape knowledge. Although this route seems to be moderate, it is equally destructive and subversive.


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